# Paramagnetism (Classical, Quantum)

In the system of independent magnetic moments in contact with a heat bath,
each moment can take various directions with different energy
and the probability of finding the system in a stete of energy
E is given by the Boltzman factor exp[-E/kT]. While classical magnetic moments
can take any direction in the continuous space, magnetic moments obeying
the quantum mechanics can point discrete diredctions whose number is
determined by the size of angular momentum, J. The average mognetization
⟨ M_{z} ⟩, or the energy of the system fluctuates
from time to time. Properties can be scaled by μH/kT.

Last modified: Sat July 11 18:43:21 2009